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Getting clear on the new coding rules can help you eliminate bloated documentation and improve reimbursement to reflect the value of your visits.

Fam Pract Manag. 2022;29(1):26-31

This content conforms to AAFP criteria for CME.

Author disclosures: no relevant financial relationships.

In 2021, significant changes were adopted for the documentation guidelines for outpatient evaluation and management (E/M) visit codes. Most notably, medical decision making or time became primary drivers of visit level selection, rather than the number of history and physical exam bullets.

In this article, we review the context for these changes, describe them briefly, and offer a quick reference tool to help physicians apply the new rules in practice.


  • The revisions to the E/M outpatient visit codes reduced administrative burden by eliminating bullet points for the history and physical exam elements.

  • Code level selection is now simplified — based on either medical decision making or total time.

  • The authors' one-page coding reference tool can help simplify the new rules.


In the 2019 Medicare physician fee schedule final rule, released in November 2018, the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) adopted revisions to the outpatient E/M codes in order to reduce administrative burden. (See Originally scheduled for implementation in 2021, these changes would have combined visit levels 2–4 into a blended payment rate (e.g., one rate for 99202-99204 and one rate for 99212-99214), among other changes.

In response, the American Medical Association (AMA) convened a joint CPT Editorial Board and Relative Value Scale Update Committee (RUC) workgroup to build on the changes and propose some alternatives. The workgroup's goals were to decrease administrative burden, payer audits, and unnecessary medical record documentation while ensuring that payment of E/M services is resource-based.

The workgroup approved significant revisions to the outpatient office visit E/M codes. Code 99201 was deleted. The history and/or physical examination and the counting of bullets were eliminated as components for code selection (although history and/or physical examination documentation should still be performed as medically appropriate). Medical decision making (MDM) or time could be used for code level selection. Changes were made to the code descriptors for 99202-99205 and 99211-99215, the definition of medical decision making, and the calculation of time, and a shorter prolonged services add-on code was created. CMS adopted these new E/M coding guidelines. As a result of the changes to medical decision making and time-based coding, the RUC revised the 2021 relative value units (RVUs) for office visit E/M codes. Most of the values increased, yielding an overall increase of more than 10%.


For outpatient E/M coding, medical decision making now has three components:

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