New Drug Reviews

Ticagrelor (Brilinta) for Secondary Prevention of Thrombotic Events Following Acute Coronary Syndrome


Am Fam Physician. 2013 Dec 15;88(12):821-822.

Ticagrelor (Brilinta) is a newer, reversible P2Y12 platelet inhibitor. Older, irreversible P2Y12 receptor inhibitors include prasugrel (Effient), clopidogrel (Plavix), and ticlopidine. Ticagrelor is labeled for the prevention of vascular events and death in patients with acute coronary syndrome.1

 Enlarge     Print

DrugDosageDose formCost*

Ticagrelor (Brilinta)

Loading dose: ticagrelor (180 mg) plus aspirin (325 mg)

90-mg tablet


Maintenance dosage: ticagrelor (90 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (75 to 100 mg daily)

*—Estimated retail price of one month's treatment based on information obtained at (accessed August 26, 2013).

DrugDosageDose formCost*

Ticagrelor (Brilinta)

Loading dose: ticagrelor (180 mg) plus aspirin (325 mg)

90-mg tablet


Maintenance dosage: ticagrelor (90 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (75 to 100 mg daily)

*—Estimated retail price of one month's treatment based on information obtained at (accessed August 26, 2013).


The most significant safety issue with ticagrelor is the risk of bleeding episodes. A major bleeding episode will occur in 11.6% of patients, and life-threatening bleeding will affect 5.8% of patients over 12 months of therapy; these rates are similar to those for clopidogrel.1 Death caused by intracranial bleeding is more likely with ticagrelor than with clopidogrel (0.1% vs. 0.01%), but the likelihood of death caused by nonintracranial bleeding is lower (0.1% vs. 0.3%). Ticagrelor should not be used if patients are also taking cytochrome P450 3A4 inducers (e.g., rifampin, carbamazepine [Tegretol], dexamethasone, phenobarbital, phenytoin [Dilantin]) and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (e.g., ketoconazole, ritonavir [Norvir], nefazodone). Ticagrelor increases bleeding risk in patients taking anticoagulants and antithrombotics. If these medications are used together, patients should be carefully monitored.2

Ticagrelor should not be used in patients with active pathologic bleeding (e.g., peptic ulcer), a history of intracranial bleeding when urgent coronary artery bypass graft surgery is anticipated, or within five days before any surgery. There is no reversal agent for ticagrelor, and it is not expected to be dialyzable. Ticagrelor is metabolized by the liver; use in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment could lead to an increased risk of bleeding or other complications. The manufacturer of ticagrelor recommends against using this drug in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Ticagrelor has not been studied in children or in women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. It is a U.S. Food and Drug Administration pregnancy category C drug.2


Fewer than one in 10 patients will discontinue ticagrelor because of unwanted symptoms, a rate similar to that reported with clopidogrel. Patients taking ticagrelor report dyspnea about twice as often as patients taking clopidogrel (13.8% vs. 7.8%; number needed to harm = 17).1


Ticagrelor is recommended for combination therapy with aspirin in patients who have acute coronary syndrome (unstable angina, non–ST elevation myocardial infarction, or ST elevation myocardial infarction) to reduce death from cardiovascular causes. Based on the results of a single international study of 18,624 patients from 43 countries, ticagrelor is more effective than clopidogrel in the combined outcome of preventing death from vascular causes, myocardial infarction, and stroke over the course of one year (9.8% vs. 11.7%; number needed to treat = 60; 95% confidence interval, 40 to 126).1 All-cause mortality was also decreased (4.5% vs. 5.9%; P < .001; number needed to treat = 70).1

Ticagrelor reduces myocardial infarction and vascular causes of death. However, this benefit was not demonstrated in North American study participants. It is hypothesized that this is because of the higher doses of aspirin used by this subgroup, but conclusive evidence is lacking.2,3 Ticagrelor does not have a beneficial effect on stroke-related death. A guideline from the American College of Cardiology and the American Heart Association recommends clopidogrel, ticagrelor, or prasugrel, in combination with aspirin, for dual-antiplatelet therapy for acute coronary syndrome.4 There are no head-to-head randomized trials comparing ticagrelor with prasugrel.


A one-month supply of ticagrelor (two 90-mg tablets per day) costs approximately $250. This is significantly more expensive than generically available clopidogrel (two 75-mg tablets per day; approximately $23 for a one-month supply).5


Ticagrelor must be taken twice daily, compared with the once-daily dosing of clopidogrel. A one-time loading dose of ticagrelor (180 mg) plus aspirin (325 mg) is followed by a maintenance dosage of ticagrelor (90 mg, taken twice daily) plus aspirin (75 to 100 mg daily) for 12 months. Doses of aspirin above 100 mg after the loading dose should not be used.2

Bottom Line

Ticagrelor is an alternative to clopidogrel for secondary prevention of cardiovascular death in patients with acute coronary syndrome. In an international study it was found to be more effective, but patients in the United States did not experience superior outcomes. Overall, ticagrelor is more expensive, more often causes adverse effects, and has a less convenient dosing schedule. For most patients in the United States, clopidogrel will likely be a better choice.

Address correspondence to Jennifer R. Hartmark-Hill, MD, FAAFP, at Reprints are not available from the authors.

Author disclosure: No relevant financial affiliations.


show all references

1. Wallentin L, Becker RC, Budaj A, et al.; PLATO Investigators. Ticagrelor versus clopidogrel in patients with acute coronary syndromes. N Engl J Med. 2009;361(11):1045–1057....

2. Highlights of prescribing information. Brilinta (ticagrelor) tablets for oral use London, United Kingdom: AstraZeneca. 2011. Accessed September 18, 2012.

3. Marciniak TA. Ticagrelor for acute coronary syndromes, NDA 22-433 [memorandum]. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service, U.S. Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Division of Cardiovascular and Renal Products. June 29, 2010. Accessed November 12, 2012.

4. Jneid H, Anderson JL, Wright RS, et al.; 2012 Writing Committee Members. 2012 ACCF/AHA focused update of the guideline for the management of patients with unstable angina/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (updating the 2007 guideline and replacing the 2011 focused update): a report of the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. Circulation. 2012;126(7):875–910.

5. Accessed August 26, 2013.

STEPS new drug reviews cover Safety, Tolerability, Effectiveness, Price, and Simplicity. Each independent review is provided by authors who have no financial association with the drug manufacturer.

The series coordinator for AFP is Allen F. Shaughnessy, PharmD, Tufts University Family Medicine Residency Program at Cambridge Health Alliance, Malden, Mass.

A collection of STEPS published in AFP is available at



Copyright © 2013 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact for copyright questions and/or permission requests.

Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions

More in Pubmed


Sep 2021

Access the latest issue of American Family Physician

Read the Issue

Email Alerts

Don't miss a single issue. Sign up for the free AFP email table of contents.

Sign Up Now

Navigate this Article