• Articles

    Toilet Training: Common Questions and Answers

    Drew C. Baird, Michael Bybel, Adam W. Kowalski

    Most U.S. children achieve the physiologic, cognitive, and emotional development necessary for toilet training by 18 to 30 months of age, although some children require more time. Markers of readiness for toilet training include being able to walk, don and remove clothing,...

    Acne Vulgaris: Diagnosis and Treatment

    Linda K. Ogé, Alan Broussard, Marilyn D. Marshall

    Typical acne lesions involve the pilosebaceous follicles and the interrelated processes of sebum production, Cutibacterium acnes colonization, and inflammation. Treatment is based on severity and usually includes topical agents such as retinoids, benzoyl peroxide, and...

    Postpartum Care: An Approach to the Fourth Trimester

    Heather L. Paladine, Carol E. Blenning, Yorgos Strangas

    Postpartum care should be initiated within three weeks after delivery in person or by phone, and a full assessment is recommended within 12 weeks. Women diagnosed with gestational diabetes mellitus should receive a 75-g two-hour fasting oral glucose tolerance test between...


    What Family Physicians Can Do to Reduce Maternal Mortality

    Katy B. Kozhimannil, Andrea Westby

    Family physicians can catalyze efforts to ensure the safety of all people who give birth and to support well-being during the postpartum period.

    AFP Clinical Answers

    Flu Vaccine, Car Seats, PTSD, Kidney Stones, Bridging Warfarin

    Do influenza vaccines reduce the risk of influenza in healthy children, healthy adults, and older adults? | When is the optimal time for children to transition to a booster seat or sit in the front seat of the car? | What are the benefits and harms of psychotherapies and...

    FPIN's Help Desk Answers

    Dual Antiplatelet Therapy for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease

    Erin McLaughlin, Shauna Leggett, Gary Kelsberg, Sarah Safranek

    Patients with established cardiovascular disease or risk factors (e.g., ischemic cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease, high risk of atherothrombotic disease) should receive dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin plus clopidogrel, which confers additional...

    Photo Quiz

    Nail Changes Following a Viral Infection

    Martha McGarey Metzgar, Ken Zhongyu Zhang

    A seven-year-old boy presented with abnormal growth of his fingernails that began two weeks prior. He had no other symptoms, including pain or pruritus on his hands or around his nails. He did not have fevers, chills, nausea, vomiting, or change in activity. He had hand-foot...

    Point-of-Care Guides

    Predicting the Risk of Postoperative Pulmonary Complications

    Syed Azharuddin, Pete Yunyongying

    What is the best approach to evaluate postoperative pulmonary risk?


    Elagolix (Orilissa) for Endometriosis Pain

    Brian Ford

    Elagolix can decrease pain in women with endometriosis, but it is expensive and has adverse effects similar to those of other medications that decrease estrogen levels.

    Practice Guidelines

    Influenza Vaccination: Updated Recommendations from ACIP

    Carrie Armstrong

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) has released its recommendations for routine influenza vaccination in the 2019–2020 season.

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

    Screening for Elevated Blood Lead Levels in Children and Pregnant Women: Recommendation Statement

    The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for elevated blood lead levels in asymptomatic children.

    Letters to the Editor

    Pharmacologic Treatment for Older Children with ADHD

    Sutton Hamilton

    Reply: Matthew Schefft, Diane Liu, Ricardo Quinonez

    Information from Your Family Doctor

    Toilet Training

    Most children are ready for toilet training by 18 to 30 months. Typical signs that children are ready include:


    All editors in a position to control content for this activity, AFP journal, are required to disclose any relevant financial relationships. View disclosures.

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