brand logo

Am Fam Physician. 2022;105(3):307-308

Author disclosure: No relevant financial relationships.

Clinical Question

In nonoperative management of scaphoid fractures, does using a thumb spica cast lead to superior outcomes compared with a cast that does not include the thumb?

Evidence-Based Answer

The type of cast used does not appear to impact outcomes. A short arm cast allows the patient to have better function and mobility during immobilization without compromising the healing process. (Strength of Recommendation [SOR]: B, randomized controlled trials and cross-sectional studies.) Thumb spica casts are no better than casts that do not include the thumb in fracture healing rates or long-term improvement in range of motion, strength, or pain. (SOR: B, multiple randomized controlled trials.) Testing on uninjured individuals shows no difference in the range of motion or functional movement of the wrist when immobilized in a thumb spica cast compared with a cast that does not include the thumb. (SOR: C, cross-sectional anatomic studies.) Patients wearing thumb spica casts also have more functional limitations than patients able to use their thumb while casted. (SOR: C, cross-sectional studies.)

Evidence Summary


A 2014 multicenter randomized controlled trial from the Netherlands compared below-elbow casting with and without inclusion of the thumb for the treatment of nondisplaced or minimally displaced fractures of the scaphoid waist (n = 55) and distal scaphoid (n = 7).1 Included patients (n = 62) were 18 years or older and presented less than four weeks after injury with a scaphoid fracture confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography (CT) with less than 1 mm of gapping or translation between fracture fragments and no other associated fracture or perilunate injury. Patients were treated with cast immobilization for 10 weeks, with or without the thumb included, at which time a CT scan was performed, and fracture union was measured as a percentage of the fracture line crossed by bridging bone. The primary outcome was extent of union at 10 weeks, with secondary outcomes measured at six months, including radiographic union, flexion/extension, grip strength and wrist motion, and arm-specific disability. At 10 weeks, there was a statistically significant difference in extent of union favoring the no-thumb cast (n = 31) compared with the thumb cast (n = 31; 85% vs. 70%; P = .048), although the authors note that this likely does not have any clinical significance. None of the secondary outcomes measured at six months showed any statistically significant differences between the groups. Study limitations included unintentional inclusion of fractures of the distal third of the scaphoid, unreliable measurement of union on CT, and patients lost to follow-up.

Already a member/subscriber?  Log In


From $165
  • Immediate, unlimited access to all AFP content
  • More than 130 CME credits/year
  • AAFP app access
  • Print delivery available

Issue Access

  • Immediate, unlimited access to this issue's content
  • CME credits
  • AAFP app access
  • Print delivery available
Purchase Access:  Learn More

Clinical Inquiries provides answers to questions submitted by practicing family physicians to the Family Physicians Inquiries Network (FPIN). Members of the network select questions based on their relevance to family medicine. Answers are drawn from an approved set of evidence-based resources and undergo peer review. The strength of recommendations and the level of evidence for individual studies are rated using criteria developed by the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group (

The complete database of evidence-based questions and answers is copyrighted by FPIN. If interested in submitting questions or writing answers for this series, go to or email:

This series is coordinated by John E. Delzell Jr., MD, MSPH, associate medical editor.

A collection of FPIN’s Clinical Inquiries published in AFP is available at

Continue Reading

More in AFP

More in Pubmed

Copyright © 2022 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.

This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP.  See permissions for copyright questions and/or permission requests.