AFP Clinical Answers

Flu Vaccine, Car Seats, PTSD, Kidney Stones, Bridging Warfarin

 

Am Fam Physician. 2019 Oct 15;100(8):462.

Do influenza vaccines reduce the risk of influenza in healthy children, healthy adults, and older adults?

Influenza vaccination reduces rates of laboratory-confirmed influenza and symptomatic influenza-like illness in healthy children, healthy adults, and older adults. Numbers needed to treat vary from 3 in children younger than 16 years in areas with high influenza risk to 500 in children younger than two years in areas with low influenza risk. There is no consistent evidence that influenza vaccination reduces school absenteeism in children, parental absenteeism from work, or adult hospitalizations, nor is there conclusive evidence that influenza vaccination decreases mortality.

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0801/p143.html

When is the optimal time for children to transition to a booster seat or sit in the front seat of the car?

When children have outgrown the forward-facing seat limits for the car seat, they should use a booster seat until the lap and shoulder parts of the seat belt fit correctly. All children younger than 13 years should be restrained in the rear seats of vehicles for optimal protection.

https://www.aafp.org/afp/2019/0415/p525.html

What are the benefits and harms of psychotherapies and pharmacologic agents for the treatment of adults with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)?

Cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) and CBT-mixed treatments have a high strength of evidence for benefit in improving PTSD-related outcomes, such as reduced PTSD symptoms, reduced depression symptoms, and resolution of PTSD diagnosis. Cognitive processing therapy, cognitive therapy, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing, and narrative exposure therapy had a moderate strength of evidence for benefit. Fluoxetine (Prozac), paroxetine (Paxil), and venlafaxine had moderate strength of evidence for reducing PTSD symptoms. There was insufficient evidence to compare psychotherapy with pharmacotherapy and to compare serious adverse events among treatments.

https://www.aafp.org/afp/20

 

 

Copyright © 2019 by the American Academy of Family Physicians.
This content is owned by the AAFP. A person viewing it online may make one printout of the material and may use that printout only for his or her personal, non-commercial reference. This material may not otherwise be downloaded, copied, printed, stored, transmitted or reproduced in any medium, whether now known or later invented, except as authorized in writing by the AAFP. Contact afpserv@aafp.org for copyright questions and/or permission requests.

Want to use this article elsewhere? Get Permissions

CME Quiz

More in AFP


Editor's Collections


More in Pubmed

MOST RECENT ISSUE


Dec 1, 2019

Access the latest issue of American Family Physician

Read the Issue


Email Alerts

Don't miss a single issue. Sign up for the free AFP email table of contents.

Sign Up Now

Navigate this Article