• Articles

    Croup: Diagnosis and Management

    Dustin K. Smith, Andrew J. McDermott, John F. Sullivan

    Croup is a common respiratory illness that typically affects children six months to three years of age. It is a manifestation of upper airway obstruction resulting from swelling of the larynx, trachea, and bronchi, leading to inspiratory stridor and a barking cough....

    Top 20 Research Studies of 2017 for Primary Care Physicians

    Mark H. Ebell, Roland Grad

    Each year, a team of evidence-based medicine experts systematically reviews more than 100 journals to identify studies most likely to change practice. The studies selected are known as POEMs, or patient-oriented evidence that matters. Each POEM meets criteria for reporting...

    Charcot Foot: Clinical Clues, Diagnostic Strategies, and Treatment Principles

    Valerie S. Marmolejo, Jonathan F. Arnold, Mario Ponticello, Charles A. Andersen

    Charcot neuroarthropathy of the foot and ankle is an inflammatory condition that affects the periarticular soft tissues and bone in persons with peripheral neuropathy. If untreated, the patient is at risk of ulceration, infection, and amputation. Physicians should suspect...

    AAFP News Now: AFP Edition

    AAFP News: AFP Edition

    Residency Leaders Encourage Training in Opioid Prescribing | EveryONE Project Unveils Team-Based Tools | AAFP Approves Functional Medicine CME | New Immunization App Customizes Vaccine Recommendations


    Obesity in Pregnancy: Risks and Management

    Lyrad Riley, Maggie Wertz, Ian McDowell

    As obesity becomes more common, it is important for all maternity care clinicians to understand the risks and associated management of obesity in pregnancy. Elevated prepregnancy weight increases the absolute risk of many adverse fetal and maternal outcomes.

    Implementing AHRQ Effective Health Care Reviews

    Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Cardiovascular Disease

    Tyler S. Rogers, Dean A. Seehusen

    What is the effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on cardiovascular outcomes?

    Cochrane for Clinicians

    Antiepileptic Drug Monotherapy for Epilepsy

    John P. Barrett, Aaron Saguil

    In patients with partial-onset (focal) seizures, levetiracetam (Keppra), lamotrigine (Lamictal), and carbamazepine (Tegretol) were associated with the longest time to treatment withdrawal (i.e., the recommended patient-oriented outcome measure that balances tolerability with...

    Effectiveness and Safety of Celecoxib for the Treatment of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Kristian Sanchack, Sajeewane Seales, Paul Seales

    Compared with placebo, celecoxib improves pain (number needed to treat [NNT] = 4) and clinical symptoms (NNT = 7), but it has no effect on physical function in patients with RA.

    Curbside Consultation

    Clinical and Personal Utility of Genetic Risk Testing

    Sean P. David, Latha Palaniappan

    On April 6, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved marketing of the 23andMe Personal Genome Service, the first direct-to-consumer genetic test. This test uses genomic DNA collected from mail-in saliva collection kits to provide information on a patient's...

    Photo Quiz

    Hyperpigmented Patches on the Dorsal Hands

    Steven Feldman, Taylor Edwards, Zeynep Meltem Akkurt

    A man with a history of HIV infection, diabetes, alcohol use disorder, and tobacco use disorder presented with skin lesions on his upper extremities and hyperpigmented patches on his face.


    One-Third of Patients with Anxiety Disorder Will Relapse When Antidepressant Treatment Stops

    Allen F. Shaughnessy

    Discontinuing the antidepressant treatment in patients with anxiety disorders will cause a relapse in almost one-third of them. One in six patients previously treated successfully will also relapse despite continued treatment.

    Lumbar Fusion of Variable Value Based on Treating Diagnosis, with Significant Complication Rates

    Mark H. Ebell

    Lumbar fusion for degenerative spinal disease appears to be most beneficial for patients undergoing the procedure for spondylolisthesis, but it is of little clear benefit for patients with other indications, such as spinal stenosis or chronic back pain.

    Exercise Alone and Various Combinations of Interventions Reduce the Risk of Injurious Falls in Older Adults

    David Slawson

    Exercise alone; exercise combined with vision assessment and treatment; exercise combined with vision assessment and treatment, and environmental assessment and modification; and clinic-level quality improvement strategies combined with multifactorial assessment and treatment...

    Single Question Is Useful for Identifying Acute Mountain Sickness in Travelers at High Altitude

    David Slawson

    Three different diagnostic scoring tools have similar accuracy for identifying adults at risk of AMS. One tool, the clinical functional score, is the simplest to use and consists of asking a single question.

    Practice Guidelines

    Gender-Dysphoric/Gender-Incongruent Persons: Treatment Recommendations from the Endocrine Society

    Jennifer Wilkes

    Gender-dysphoric/gender-incongruent persons require a safe and effective hormone regimen. These recommendations are an update to the clinical practice guideline on endocrine treatment of transsexual persons published in 2009 by the Endocrine Society.

    Medicine by the Numbers

    Pregabalin (Lyrica) for Acute Fibromyalgia Pain

    Luke Donnelly, Jaime Moran, Mathew Foley

    Pregabalin (Lyrica) provides good pain relief to some patients with acute fibromyalgia pain but does not work for most persons. Learn more.

    FPIN's Help Desk Answers

    Primary Closure of Animal Bites

    Angela Cade, Sarah Low, Hayden Head

    Dog bites can have a primary closure at the time of injury. Primary closure of dog bites does not increase the rate of wound infections compared with nonclosure.

    Effectiveness of Pneumococcal Vaccines

    Marvin Sineath, Jr., Kristin McPhillips

    The 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23; Pneumovax 23) decreases the relative risk of community-acquired pneumonia in adults by 13%. The risk is reduced by 28% in the population that includes adults older than 65 years, those with lung disease, and those...

    Information from Your Family Doctor

    Croup: What You Should Know

    Croup (“kroop”) is a common infection in children that causes swelling in the trachea (windpipe) and larynx (voice box). It is caused by a virus, so it can spread through coughing and sneezing. It can also spread by dirty hands, sharing toys, and sharing drinking glasses or...


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