ROBERT C. OH, THOMAS R. HUSTEAD, SYED M. ALI, MATTHEW W. PANTSARI
The most common causes of elevated transaminase levels are nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and alcoholic liver disease. Evaluation begins with a focused history, physical examination, and laboratory testing. If nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is suspected, lifestyle...
STEVEN A. HOUSE, ERIC L. FISHER
The causes of hoarseness range from simple inflammatory processes to serious systemic, neurologic, or cancerous conditions. Medication-induced hoarseness is common and should be considered as a possible etiology. Laryngoscopy should be performed if symptoms last longer than...
GREGG D. STONER
Hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state is a life-threatening emergency manifested by marked elevation of blood glucose and hyperosmolarity with little or no ketosis. Causes include underlying infections, certain medications, nonadherence to therapy, undiagnosed diabetes mellitus,...
Panelists: Congress Must Fund Public Health Prevention Campaigns | AAFP Responds to Proposed HHS Strategy | CDC Advises Physicians on Treating Patients Affected by Hurricanes | AAFP Responds to Proposed VA Rule Expanding Telehealth Services
MARK H. EBELL
In 2016, the USPSTF updated 14 previous recommendation statements and added a new recommendation on screening for autism spectrum disorder. Several updated recommendations are notable for having significant changes.
JENNIFER G. CHANG
Oral rehydration solutions are distinguished by high or low osmolarity and by whether they are made with complex (i.e., polymer) or simple (i.e., glucose) carbohydrates. When oral rehydration solutions with high osmolarity (310 mOsm per L or greater) are compared, polymer...
It's my senior year of high school. I have been the leading scorer for my basketball team the past two years. We are undefeated in the conference, and I am the favorite to be Player of the Year and to make the All-State team. Two colleges plan to offer me athletic scholarships.
ANDY CHERN, SHAYNA C. RIVARD, KENT HANDFIELD
A man presented with skin lesions his hand and finger a few weeks after sustaining a minor laceration while skinning slaughtered sheep.
Transdermal estrogen plus progestogen, or oral estrogen plus progestogen, is the treatment most likely to effectively reduce the frequency of vasomotor symptoms among menopausal women. Isoflavones and black cohosh were found to be better than placebo.
The diagnostic standard for acute gout is joint aspiration with synovial fluid analysis for monosodium urate crystals; however, many patients are seen in a primary care or emergency medicine situation where synovial fluid analysis is rarely performed. The American College of...
PAUL CRAWFORD, YOU XU
Based on low-quality evidence, high-concentration capsaicin patches reduce neuropathic pain from herpes and human immunodeficiency virus infection by 30% to 50% compared with the low-concentration capsaicin control group.
WILLIAM MILLER, JAMES WEST, HOLLIE MILLS
A single-question alcohol use screen and the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test–Consumption (AUDIT-C) can be used to detect unhealthy alcohol use and alcohol use disorder. Their performance is similar between sexes and across races.
Topical application of lidocaine/prilocaine cream to the cervix reduces mean pain scores during IUD insertion. Intrauterine instillation of liquid anesthesia reduces median pain scores during endometrial biopsy.
The liver releases several substances when it is injured. Two of these substances are enzymes called alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST).
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