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Am Fam Physician. 2024;109(4):312

When should children with low back pain be referred to a spine surgeon?

If there is progressive or high-grade spondylolisthesis (anterior slippage of the vertebrae to grade 3 or higher), development of any neurologic deficits, or no improvement following at least 6 months of conservative management, the patient should be referred to a spine surgeon.

What is the role of obstetric history when assessing CVD risk?

Adverse pregnancy conditions, such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes mellitus, should be considered risk-enhancing factors when addressing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk for statin therapy.

What is first-line treatment for pulmonary sarcoidosis?

Oral corticosteroids are first-line treatment in patients with pulmonary sarcoidosis because they improve chest radiograph appearance, spirometry, and symptoms; however, they do not appear to improve long-term disease progression.

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