• Articles

    Smell and Taste Disorders in Primary Care

    Dillon J. Savard, Francesca G. Ursua, Heidi L. Gaddey

    Disorders of smell and taste are common, especially among older people. Smell and taste disorders affect quality of life and the ability to identify smoke and toxins. These disorders can be an early sign of dementia or Parkinson disease and are associated with increased...

    Gestational Diabetes Mellitus: Update on Screening, Diagnosis, and Management

    Joshua S. Will, Holly Crellin

    Gestational diabetes mellitus is a common condition of pregnancy that increases risks of complications, and its prevalence is increasing. This article describes best practices for screening, diagnosis, and management, such as glucose control, delivery timing, and postpartum care.

    Benzodiazepine Use Disorder: Common Questions and Answers

    Sandy Robertson, Emily E. Peacock, Robert Scott

    This article reviews the diagnosis of benzodiazepine use disorder, risk factors for misuse and long-term use, deprescribing of benzodiazepines, and management of withdrawal symptoms.

    Peripartum Depression: Detection and Treatment

    Kathryn Justesen, Darien Jourdaine

    Peripartum depression is one of the most common disorders of pregnancy and carries a higher morbidity and mortality risk than any other condition during pregnancy. Pregnant patients should be screened for depression with a validated screening tool and offered psychotherapy...

    Primary Aldosteronism

    Keith B. Quencer, J. B. (Bruin) Rugge, Olga Senashova

    Primary aldosteronism is the overproduction and oversecretion of aldosterone. The first step in diagnosis is case detection, and it is performed by simultaneously measuring plasma aldosterone concentration and plasma renin levels. Treatment is based on the subtype of...

    Delirium in Older Persons: Prevention, Evaluation, and Management

    Ecler Ercole Jaqua, Van Tuong Ngoc Nguyen, Elysia Chin

    Delirium occurs in 11% to 25% of older adults in inpatient settings and is associated with a significant financial burden. Older age, multiple comorbidities, recent surgery, and polypharmacy are independent risk factors for delirium. The diagnosis is clinical but can be...


    Implementing HIV PrEP in Routine Practice

    Jarrett Sell

    The CDC estimates that only 25% of the 1.2 million people who could have benefited from PrEP received it in 2020. Family physicians are ideally positioned to prevent HIV, improve access to PrEP, and address current health inequities.

    The Role of Xylazine in the Overdose Crisis

    Irbert L. Vega, Matthew K. Griswold, David T. O'Gurek

    Although evidence is limited regarding best practices, family physicians should have an awareness of the drug supply and understand the potential implications of xylazine to provide comprehensive and holistic care.

    AFP Clinical Answers

    CIN2, Abdominal Pain, Lung Cancer Screening, Postpartum Hemorrhage, Faltering Growth

    Key clinical questions and their evidence-based answers directly from the journal’s content, written by and for family physicians.

    Medicine by the Numbers

    Nicotine Receptor Partial Agonists for Smoking Cessation

    Weyinshet Gossa

    The existing evidence indicates that varenicline is more effective than placebo, no medication, bupropion, or nicotine replacement monotherapy for smoking cessation. People taking varenicline may experience more serious adverse events, although these are still considered rare.

    Cochrane for Clinicians

    Dual and Triple Combination Inhaler Therapies: Effectiveness and Tolerability in Adolescents and Adults With Asthma

    Kyle J. Fletke, Laurene Dampare

    Compared with medium-dose dual inhaler therapy (ICS/LABA), triple inhaler therapy (ICS/LABA/LAMA) reduces steroid-requiring asthma exacerbations in adults with asthma, but not asthma-related hospitalizations.

    Antibiotics for Acute Uncomplicated Diverticulitis

    Michael Baca-Atlas, Anne Mounsey

    Antibiotics do not reduce complications or the need for emergency surgery in people with acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. Treatment without antibiotics appears to be safe.

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

    Folic Acid Supplementation for the Prevention of Neural Tube Defects: Clinical Summary of the USPSTF Recommendation

    The USPSTF recommends that all persons planning to or who could become pregnant take a daily supplement containing 0.4 to 0.8 mg (400 to 800 mcg) of folic acid.

    Lown Right Care

    Diagnostic Overshadowing: When Cognitive Biases Can Harm Patients

    Andy Lazris, Alan Roth, Patient perspective by Helen Haskell, John James

    A collaboration between AFP and the Lown Institute promotes a vision of delivering heath care that is based on the evidence, balanced in its approach, and focused on the patient.

    Curbside Consultation

    Care of the Patient With Justice System Involvement

    Ranit Mishori, Stephen Kane

    Patients with justice system involvement face stigmatization in most areas of society, including health care. Justice system involvement is defined as regular interactions with legal, law enforcement, and carceral systems, including detention, incarceration, or community...

    Photo Quiz

    Linear Skin Lesion in a Newborn

    Gregg Mitchell, Morgan Alana Wallen, Grant Studebaker

    A newborn presented with dry, whitish-grey plaques in a linear pattern from the right inguinal area over the medial thigh and lateral shin, involving the plantar and dorsal surface of the right foot.

    Blurry Vision and Facial Rash

    Levis Tran, Eric Coker

    A 69-year-old woman presented with vesicles on erythematous bases around her left eye.


    Finerenone (Kerendia) for the Treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Autumn Stewart-Lynch

    Finerenone slows the decline in renal function in some patients when added to existing therapy. However, it does not affect patient-oriented outcomes in all patients with diabetes-related chronic kidney disease.

    FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

    Effect of Steroid Injections on Blood Glucose Level

    Jason W. Deck, Lamont Cavanagh, Tyler Wines, William Dudney, Toni Hoberecht, Emrys Moreau

    In patients with well-controlled type 2 diabetes, blood glucose levels may reach peak values of 165 to 500 mg per dL (9.16 to 27.75 mmol per L) at 2 to 84 hours after intra-articular steroid injections and return to baseline in 18 hours to 21 days.

    Diagnostic Tests

    BD Max Vaginal Panel for the Detection of Vaginitis

    Kathleen Barry, Rachel Ceccarelli

    The BD Max Vaginal Panel is safe and accurately diagnoses most common bacterial, fungal, and protozoan causes of vaginitis in symptomatic women, including those who are pregnant. The cost is considerably higher than clinician diagnosis and traditional in-office microscopy.

    Point-of-Care Guides

    Identifying Patients at Risk for Suicidal Ideation or Behaviors

    Mark H. Ebell

    In a health care setting, is it possible to identify adolescents and adults who are at risk for suicidal ideation or behavior?


    Chlorthalidone No Better Than Hydrochlorothiazide for Hypertension

    Mark H. Ebell

    Treat-to-Target LDL Strategy of Statin Dosing Is Noninferior to High-Intensity Dosing

    David C. Slawson

    Augmentation With Aripiprazole or Bupropion, or a Switch to Nortriptyline, Effective for Treatment-Resistant Depression in Older Adults

    Mark H. Ebell

    Tailored Exercise Program Improves Function and Reduces Pain Due to Knee Osteoarthritis

    Allen F. Shaughnessy

    Practice Guidelines

    Management of Hyperglycemia in Hospitalized Adults: Guidelines From the Endocrine Society

    Michael J. Arnold

    The Endocrine Society released updated guidelines for glycemic management during hospitalization with noncritical illnesses.

    Management of Heart Failure: Updated Guidelines From the AHA/ACC

    Brian Ford, Michael Dore, Bethany Bartlett

    The American Heart Association/American College of Cardiology (AHA/ACC) Joint Committee on Clinical Practice Guidelines, with members of the Heart Failure Society of America, published new guidelines on managing the condition.

    Letters to the Editor

    Physicians Need Education About Fertility Awareness–Based Methods

    Joseph B. Stanford, Marguerite Duane

    Reply: Scott L. Paradise, David A. Klein

    Helmet and Pad Removal for Football Head and Neck Injuries

    Ralph L. Mills, James R. Johnston, Caitlyn C. Harter

    Removal of Stones and Food for Relief of Pain and Recurrence of Tonsillitis

    John W. Richards, Jr.

    Reply: Kelly Lacy Smith, Rachel Hughes, Palee Myrex

    Information from Your Family Doctor

    Smell and Taste Disorders

    Smell and taste are important senses. Smell is linked to memory, lets us enjoy certain scents, and adds to our sense of taste. Smell can also alert us to dangers. Taste allows us to enjoy food and drinks. Together, smell and taste help our desire to eat and maintain nutrition...

    Depression During and After Pregnancy: When It's More Than the Baby Blues

    Shortly before, during, and after you have a baby, you might have normal mood changes. These can last for up to 10 days. They are called the baby blues. Sometimes, the mood changes are more severe and last longer. They are called peripartum depression.


    All editors in a position to control content for this activity, AFP journal, are required to disclose any relevant financial relationships. View disclosures.

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