• Articles

    Prenatal Care: An Evidence-Based Approach

    Sarah Inés Ramírez

    Well-coordinated prenatal care that follows an evidence-based, informed process results in fewer hospital admissions, improved education, greater patient satisfaction, and lower pregnancy-associated morbidity and mortality.

    Joint and Soft Tissue Injections

    Julie A. Creech-Organ, Sarah E. Szybist, Jacqueline L. Yurgil

    Musculoskeletal conditions are reported by 48% of the population and are a significant component of primary care visits. A patient's understanding of risks, benefits, and alternatives to injection promotes patient-oriented outcomes.

    Food Allergies: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention

    Dellyse M. Bright, Holly Leigh Stegall, David C. Slawson

    The diagnosis of food allergies starts with a detailed, allergy-focused history. Primary treatment is eliminating the offending food from the diet. No medications are effective for preventing allergic reactions to food. Infants with early exposure to allergenic foods are less...

    Pressure Injuries: Prevention, Evaluation, and Management

    Adam J. Visconti, Orlando I. Sola, Priya V. Raghavan

    Pressure injuries are localized damage to skin or soft tissue. Prevention should focus on nutritional status, repositioning, and appropriate support surfaces. Skin assessments are crucial for evaluation, and treatment should involve pressure off-loading, appropriate bandage...

    Evaluation of Acute Pelvic Pain in Women

    D. Jason Frasca, Caitlyn E. Jarrio, Justin Perdue

    Signs and symptoms of acute pelvic pain in women are often nonspecific. The differential diagnosis is broad, based on the patient's age and pregnancy status and gynecologic vs. nongynecologic etiology. History findings can guide the physical examination, laboratory studies,...

    Speech and Language Delay in Children

    Jedda Rupert, Pamela Hughes, Daniel Schoenherr

    Family physicians are integral in the identification and initial evaluation of childhood speech and language delays. Parental observations and milestone assessment aid in the identification of abnormalities.


    Treatment of Mild Hypertension: Seeing Through SPRINT

    Stephen A. Martin

    Since 2015, hypertension care has been contentious because of a single study: SPRINT. The results surprised myself and others in primary care, as did differing specialty interpretations about how—or whether—these results should influence hypertension management.

    Dietary Remission of Type 2 Diabetes: Opportunities for Family Physicians

    Kevin Sherin, Sulekho Egal, Rocio Silva Sanchez

    Given the negative effects of diabetes on patients, families, and communities, family physicians should counsel patients with a recent diagnosis about the benefits of a structured weight loss intervention, including diabetes remission.

    Medicine by the Numbers

    Oral Anticholinergics for Overactive Bladder Symptoms

    Leah A. Stem, Sean P. Haley

    The 2019 American Urological Association guidelines for treatment of nonneurogenic overactive bladder in adults recommend behavior therapy as first-line treatment, with anticholinergics as second-line treatment or used in conjunction with behavior therapies.

    Graham Center Policy One-Pager

    Family Medicine Residency Applications Declined More Precipitously in States With Abortion Restrictions

    Alison Huffstetler, Grace Walter, Kendal Orgera

    In 2023, the number of senior medical students applying for family medicine residencies declined by 7.4% in states with abortion bans compared with a 3.6% decrease in states where abortion is legal.

    AFP Clinical Answers

    Allergic Rhinitis, Acute Limp, Shoulder Dislocation Surgery, Hyperbilirubinemia, Vertigo, Leukemia

    Key clinical questions and their evidence-based answers directly from the journal’s content, written by and for family physicians.

    Cochrane for Clinicians

    Inspiratory Muscle Training for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Stephanie Algenio Anciro, Anna Milliren

    Inspiratory muscle training improves symptoms, physical fitness, and quality of life in patients with COPD. When combined with pulmonary rehabilitation, inspiratory muscle training makes no difference compared with pulmonary rehabilitation alone.

    Effectiveness of Inhaled Corticosteroids for Acute Asthma Exacerbations

    Tyler Rogers, Gregory Altman, Paige Williams, Patient Perspective by Helen Haskell

    In this Cochrane review, patients with mild to moderate persistent asthma and symptoms consistent with an acute asthma exacerbation who are treated with increased doses of ICSs show no reduction in the need for further intervention with primarily systemic corticosteroids vs....

    U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

    Screening for Latent Tuberculosis in Adults

    The USPSTF recommends screening for LTBI in populations at increased risk.

    Diagnostic Tests

    BioFire Respiratory Panel for the Detection of Viruses and Bacteria

    Nick F. Bennett, Ashley L. Bissaillon

    The BioFire RP2.1 is a rapid and accurate test that can assist with timely antiviral therapy and infection control measures, but evidence is mixed over its clinical benefit in decreasing the length of antibiotic use in adults.

    Diary of a Family Physician

    Diary of a Family Physician

    Fasih Hameed, Hannah Maxfield

    First-person accounts from the front lines of family medicine.

    Curbside Consultation

    The Challenges of Discharge Against Medical Advice: Conflict and Consequences

    Brigham Merrell, Robert Gauer

    The definition of discharge against medical advice is when a patient decides to leave the hospital or other health care setting (i.e., emergency department, outpatient clinics) before the medical team recommends discharge or disposition.

    FPIN's Clinical Inquiries

    Open Glottis During Delivery and Perineal Trauma

    Viviane de Souza Santos Sachs, Simone Bigelow, Jennifer Weakley, Livia Maruoka Nishi, Helga Skaftason

    Open glottis pushing during the second stage of labor is a prolonged exhalation while contracting the stomach muscles. There is conflicting evidence about whether maintaining an open glottis during delivery prevents perineal trauma.

    Photo Quiz

    Edematous Lower Lip

    Julie A. Creech-Organ, Reid Rivers

    A woman presented with lower lip swelling.

    Intraoral Lesions in a Newborn

    Diana Trang, Shauna Norman, Michelle L. Lawson

    An infant presented with several small lesions on the mucosal surface of his lower lip.


    A Low FODMAP Diet Is Better Than an Oral Spasmolytic for Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Mark H. Ebell

    Letrozole More Effective Than Clomiphene for Infertility Treatment Among Individuals With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Linda Speer

    Limited Benefit for Routine Cervical Cancer Screening With Cotesting vs. HPV Testing Alone

    Linda Speer

    Early Invasive Strategy Does Not Reduce Mortality for Moderate to Severe Ischemic Heart Disease After 5.8 Years

    Mark H. Ebell

    Practice Guidelines

    Bowel Injury in Trauma: Guidelines for Diagnosis and Treatment From the World Society of Emergency Surgery

    Ellie Mentler, Robert Vietor, John Maddox

    The World Society of Emergency Surgery published guidelines for identifying and treating bowel injuries.

    Perioperative Management of Antithrombotic Medications: Guidelines From the American College of Chest Physicians

    Anne L. du Breuil

    The American College of Chest Physicians published updated guidelines on perioperative management of antithrombotic medications for elective procedures based on a systematic review of primarily low-quality evidence.

    Letters to the Editor

    Importance of Simplifying Medication Regimens for Patients Experiencing Homelessness

    Akshay Pendyal

    Case Report: Late-Onset Metformin-Associated Diarrhea

    Robert J. Flaherty

    The Term “Killer Bee” Is Not Helpful When Talking to Patients or Colleagues

    Cynthia G. Olsen

    Reply: Joel Herness, Matthew J. Snyder, Raquelle Suzanne Newman

    Information from Your Family Doctor

    Joint and Soft Tissue Injections

    A joint injection is a shot with a needle into a joint (where two or more bones meet to allow movement, such as the knee). A soft tissue injection is a shot into a soft tissue space (such as the space between a muscle and a bone). Doctors can use the needle to remove fluid or...

    Food Allergies

    Food allergies happen when your body has a bad reaction to something you eat. This is not food poisoning. Babies and children are more likely to be allergic to peanuts, cow's milk, tree nuts (like pecans and walnuts), eggs, soy, and wheat. You can develop food allergies at...

    Evaluating Acute Pelvic Pain

    It is pain or discomfort in your lower stomach or pelvic region (area below your stomach and between your thighs) that has been happening for less than three months.

    Speech and Language Delay in Children

    Speech and language delay can cause your child to have problems saying words and phrases, understanding what is being said, or putting feelings, thoughts, and ideas into words.



    Incorrect symbol. In the article “Alcohol Withdrawal Syndrome: Outpatient Management” (September 2021, p. 253), Table 4 incorrectly used the > symbol instead of the ≥ symbol in the next-to-last row (p. 259). It should have read, “Severe and complicated withdrawal symptoms ...


    Vaccination recommendation. In the Practice Guideline “ACIP Approves 2023 Child/Adolescent and Adult Immunization Schedules” (March 2023, p. 319), the recommended schedule for pneumococcal vaccination for adults younger than 65 years was not clearly stated. The first sentence...


    Incorrect recommendation. In the article “Tuberculosis: Common Questions and Answers” (September 2022, p. 308), the recommended cutoff age for interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) testing was listed incorrectly. In the first paragraph of the “What Are the Advantages and...


    All editors in a position to control content for this activity, AFP journal, are required to disclose any relevant financial relationships. View disclosures.

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